This is a complex issue that lawmakers will have to decide. Today this possibility is forbidden in France. "The fact to intercede" to resort to this practice is liable to one year imprisonment and a 15,000 euro fine. The fine is doubled if the act is done for reasons of financial gain. The French ban was passed in 1994 and again in 2004 However there have been cases of surrogacy in France, authorized by law since no variance there, do not derogate because law did not exist. It was between 1987 and 1991 the number of children born to mothers during this period is estimated at 70. To my knowledge, there are no epidemiological studies to monitor these children since then, which could allow legislators to decide in full knowledge and avoid the fantasies of both sides. (Shift 24/06/2009: The Express returns to its edition of Thursday, June 25 on the issue via an article taking the journey of three families with the testimonies of children born to mother).
Many today are people and organizations to take a stand on this issue.
Among the supporters of a controlled surrogacy authorization are: the Association Maia , the Committee Clara , Elisabeth Badinter , the Minister for Family, Nadine Morano , Genevieve Delaisi Perceval, a working group of the Senate.
Among the opponents, the ranks included more we find, the "father" of the first French test tube baby, the doctor Rene Frydman , the philosopher Sylviane Agacinski, the Housing Minister Christine Boutin, the 'OPECST (Parliamentary office dedicated to ethics that includes several representatives and senators sensitive to these issues and publish reports), the National Consultative Ethics Committee , Catholic and Protestant as well as representatives of Islam and to a lesser extent the churches c onsistoire of Paris . About opponents, René Frydman said he was "outraged by the lobbying of some associations that advocate the legalization of this practice to defend the interests of a few wealthy." It is bitter, strong, too, perhaps.
Each side has their own influence to advance his ideas. Interviews are given, open blogs, participation in conferences or seminars companies, mail and files sent to parliamentarians, holding discussions to advance his ideas, defend his point of view (as the synthesis of the Board State shows) increase its visibility and participation in the construction of the decision on this complex subject.
- . « Donner » son corps le temps d'une grossesse pour qu'un couple puisse accueillir son propre enfant est un acte altruiste de haut niveau. Accepting an act of generosity. "Donate" his body time to pregnancy for a couple can receive their own child is a selfless act of high level. This was the main motivation of French surrogates in the late 80s This act is sometimes offered by relatives of the woman who can not carry his child's mother, sister, friend ... http: // www. dailymotion.com/video/x6hb3u
- Avoid reproductive tourism. Several countries in the world accept the surrogacy. These include the United States, Canada, Belgium, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Ukraine, Denmark and Greece, five countries of the European Union. Other countries, such as India, accepts this practice and conduct an industrialization of the process as it will be objected by opponents of legalization. Accept surrogacy would thus avoid double standard measures between those who have the financial and cultural means to establish contacts with foreign countries in this regard, and those who, for various reasons, can not do . The argument is that the principle of equality prevails.
- . Comme le suggère l'affaire Mennesson , recourir aux mères porteuses à l'étranger n'est pas sans poser problème lors du retour en France des parents biologiques avec leur enfant. Avoid civil status issues. As suggested in the case Mennesson , resort to surrogate mothers abroad is not without its problems upon return to France of biological parents with their child. Who is this child? The child of his mother under French law? Who is his mother according to the law? She who gives birth the child. QED. But the interest of the child, he of having a legal identity, a civil status, without which no act of everyday life can be achieved (a passport, vote, pass an exam ...) is essential, in our culture on all other principles that can be put forward.
- Do not refuse the advances in medical technology. While the donation of gametes, male and female sperm and eggs is permitted, that embryo donation is accepted, why is it that the loan of his body be forbidden a consenting person? Under q ual ethics or moral? Would it not deny the interest of scientific progress in the medical field to reject this progress is reaching?
- Help combat the suffering of women who can not have children. Beyond the issue of convenience that could motivate women not to give birth (fear of childbirth, fear of the decay of the body thereafter anxiety about suffering ...), there are a number of purely medical reasons that prevent women to bear children. This is the case of women whose uterus has been altered by radiotherapy for example, women with syndrome Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser . In total, it is estimated, according to Cross, 300 the number of women affected by the syndrome Mayer and postpartum hemorrhage. Or in society of ours, there is a strong social pressure (not to mention the biological and psychological pressures) that women of childbearing age would. This partly explains fertility levels in our country, and this reinforces the suffering of those who can not afford the social role that is given to them.
- A movement is emerging in public opinion. Not that the French, according to polls, have become largely for this development, but one third of them do not object. Now we know the laws that lead to meaningful changes can not be made without the consent of a significant portion of the population. For at least two reasons, first, because it enables supporters of this development to have supports and relays in public opinion, secondly, because it suddenly cut the grass under the feet of opponents, more Supports in the opinion, it is less of opponents in the street, on internet forums, in newspaper columns. Today, however, in terms of public opinion, the game is not over for supporters of legalization. However, they have won their first bet: that to the public square the issue. It is no longer taboo. This is a first essential step in the recognition of surrogacy.
- This has been done, it is done. The argument seeks to show that such practices are ancient and still current, despite the ban, are somewhat specious in terms of the morality of the public debate, but it is a fact. In France, as I mentioned in the introduction, this has been tolerated for four years a reality. And even today, without that we know how many people are involved, this practice course. Except in centers in the country at least by citizens traveling abroad.
- And the father in all this? Often seen as the issue of surrogate mothers affects mostly women. It is true that there is no father-carrier and for good reason. However, "women can not have children on their own." At one point at least, a little before fertilization while the man is required. By his presence, and his ejaculation, or in absentia, having frozen his own sperm or donating his sperm in a CECOS. Or in the case of a couple of potential parents, a man and a woman so under the law, if we have seen the power of the wish, desire or need, feminine, instead of the father, his wish his desire or need, is neglected. It has also the right to have children, if it exists. And in a free society, he can decide who he wants to have. If this woman he wants for mother of his children can not accommodate the gestation of their child, not where it undergoes a double punishment. That of seeing his wife suffer and the right not to be a father.
- There is no GPA without trade. This is a punchline. In very many cases, surrogacy is manipulated to become a business. In India, women, confined in a nursing home, are recruited to become surrogate mothers on behalf of foreign or domestic super-rich who "buy" the opportunity for a little less than 10,000 euros. In Ukraine, it takes 15,000 euros. In North America, about 40,000 euros. Depending on the nature of contracts, legal liability, insurance, the price varies. The earth is flat, wrote the American journalist Thomas Friedman. Nothing is more true regarding surrogacy. You can choose the area of production and guarantees that come with it. The argument is without question but it remains theoretical. No one can say with accuracy that France would happen in the same way as the practice is prohibited. Everything leads us to believe that this issue is a major obstacle to acceptance by the public: a child can not have a price, though here we're not talking about buying children but loan or lease bellies then evicting the tenant.
- This is not "a public health priority." In an interview on this issue with the weekly L'Express, the gynecologist René Frydman, already indicates that requests for assisted reproduction, which he supported, Fertilization in vitro, artificial insemination ... are difficult to meet. For reasons of ways in the few medical centers offering these services or because of a strong shortage of donor gametes. Thus, the agency Biomedicine states in its annual report that 400 couples a year are waiting for egg donation but only 220 women volunteers each year to keep the gift inherent in medical treatment and ultimately to several their eggs.
- The medical profession does not accept this technique. The vast majority of doctors are reluctant to accept changes in the legislation on surrogacy. Jean-François Mattei, MD, former health minister, author of a remarkable book on bioethics, asserts against for reasons explained here. Or, even if at the time of the debate the authorization of the Voluntary Interruption of Pregnancy in France, in the early 70's, there were more than 10,000 against the anti-abortion sign an appeal, it is difficult to change laws Bioethics without their consultation or their consent. The pressure group that is, even if his forehead is not always united, represents a strong power of influence especially as many parliamentarians come from their ranks and therefore less sensitive to their arguments by atavism .
- The status of the surrogate mother is a fuzzy legal perspective. Who is the woman who gives birth to a child who is not biologically his? Who is this child to this woman giving birth? It is not clear measure psychological effects for the woman who gave birth to leave her child to her mother-biological. The working group of the senate who has examined the question suggests that the surrogate mother can change your mind within three days after delivery. That is to say, it may decide to keep the child who is not quite, far from it, his own. Usually, in the classical case, during the three days following the birth of a child, the whole family, aunts, uncles, brothers, sisters, fathers, mothers, friends came to maternity or hospital, or the kitchen, or in the pool, to see the child, praise the mother, the father of the child, discuss his resemblance to so and so, give gifts, take her in his arms. At birth the child was already nine months. Is given, it was given a name, an identity. He was welcomed into the family with open arms. It is the future. There is hope. How then accept that for three days, three long days, a couple is in the feverish expectation of a change of mind of the woman in labor? What anguish! What suffering of waiting! Finally, what about the right of access opposable might ask the surrogate? She still carried the child, fed, talked, perhaps even whispered words of love. And if that is not the case, as studies have shown the importance of the peace of the mother during the pregnancy and the presence of the father, why this child should he deny, from the Initially, beyond the vicissitudes of the lives of couples, these attentions.
- This implies a contract that does not qualify. Use a surrogate requires a contract between the two parties, the carrier and recipients, with commitments from both sides, rights, duties. From a philosophical point of view, this assujétion, the alienation of man by man is not admissible. This is already happening in labor contracts, but not with these implications, this constancy during the time of pregnancy. This contract also entails legal responsibilities. What will happen if the surrogate mother prefers the fair break, alcohol to strawberries, rolled cigarette Russian cigarette? Selection of surrogate mothers should be able to guarantee upstream partly serious candidates but could not ensure full loyalty of the surrogate mother vis-à-vis its commitments.
- And if the biological parents refuse the child This question is rarely asked. Presumably, a couple who engages in this process knows why he is undertaking, weathered its reflection, tried everything outside of this process. But what if during the time of pregnancy parents separate? Does the common law on parental authority applies? How to decide?
The issue of opening of surrogacy to gay couples does not arise here. Because it is assumed that it is the biological child from the gametes of a couple, thus differentiated between men and women, to be carried by a surrogate mother.
We see from reading these arguments together that this issue is complicated by its possible consequences. It also confronts us with our assumptions. As Sylviane Agacinski said, "In this field, France is not late, she is ahead." Everyone will make its opinion , Sylviane Agacinski is clearly against, but in any event, our country is undoubtedly ahead of the issue of public debate around this topic.
Sylviane Agacinski and François Olivennes discuss this thorny issue.