In the last US presidential elections, contributors industrial oil and gas thus gave 2,359,000 dollars candidate John McCain and Democratic candidate to 0,832,000 Barack Obama . Amounts that are low by donations garnered by the two candidates, 1.1 billion in total. Other economic sectors , especially banks and other financial institutions, have largely contributed most to the financing of the presidential campaign that the sector petrol.
A former influence
The real influence of lobbies energy does not lie in their ability to finance the presidential campaign but rather to influence decision-making.
For years, the major oil firms from Western states were the property or under the supervision of their own states as oil supply was a strategic interest. We find in Russia, with Gazprom, and China, with China Oil, controlled by relatives of the governments of these countries, the same logic. It thus recalls the termination of deliveries of Russian gas to Ukraine for contractual reasons but also political. Several pipeline projects are now planned to bypass Ukraine and to overcome its geographic centrality for deliveries to Europe. Since its discovery, the oil is at the center of geopolitical interests as stated Eric Laurent, in his book "The hidden face of oil . " For its part, China is looking to expand its political influence zone in Africa to secure a share of its oil supplies.
When the oil companies were under the direct control of the state shareholder, relations between the government and these companies were particularly easy and straightforward. Now that this link was distended, oil companies have engaged in lobbying campaigns to maintain their influence and remember how precious is their role in the economic development of a pay s. In France, it is the French Union of Petroleum Industries , which is responsible for spreading the word.
The Halliburton symbol
Thus, one can rumble both Iraq wars motivated by economic reasons related to the supply of energy. In order to have a stable political regime in that country, the United States and its allies have committed their troops into that country under cover of the fight against the hegemonic temptation of Iraq in Kuwait in 1991 and the fight against terrorism 2003. From there see the only brand of the oil lobby there is a step that we do not cross in the absence of hard evidence of their unique responsibility. Still, strong links exist between the white house, moved by his falcons and oil interests.
Thus, Halliburton a conglomerate of companies related to the oil industry, changes its lobbying policy as soon as George Bush Junior, and especially Vice President Dick Cheney, former chairman of Halliburton, enter the white house from 2001. To believe that money becomes useless when we have direct levers of power. In many executives of Halliburton make a trip to the Republican administration or vice versa, links testimony held between the two organizations. Sarah Palin , the Republican candidate for the vice presidency was also linked to oil influence groups . It called especially as the Bush administration, openness to drill some areas of the Arctic.
A maneuver on the Kyoto Protocol
Nevertheless, the oil sector is subject to erratic variations that the gradual extinction of oil reserves, or rather the gradual extinction of the oil reserves in terms of cheap exploitation, do not explain. The oil market is subject to the law of supply and demand . Hence it depends on the state of global growth, sluggish today which explains the fall in oil prices in recent months, despite the willingness of producing countries meeting within the oil cartel OPEC what to cut production. The price level also depends on the level of reserves of each country and primarily the United States. Also between the price of oil on world markets and the price at the pump or to the tank, other tax mechanisms but also related to refining capacity are taken into account. And not to mention, derivatives of petroleum, plastics, some of which used daily by almost all the inhabitants of the planet.
If the suspicions of influence weighing on the oil lobby during the wars in Iraq it is mainly on the evolution of international regulations on the emission of greenhouse gas that is mostly felt.
On the occasion of the negotiation of the Kyoto 1, the global agreement to reduce greenhouse gases, the world's largest emitter countries, the United States did not ratify the treaty. In fact, it becomes almost "obsolete". The Kyoto Protocol has established the market for pollution rights freely transferable on the market for the most virtuous and redeemable by those companies that pollute more than their emissions quota.
2 The Kyoto negotiations to be held in Denmark in December 2009 will be an opportunity for the oil lobby to gauge its influence greatly against-square by interest groups in the world of insurance, worried about the consequences of global change on humans and their income statements according to natural disasters suggest that raising the level of temperature and water on the planet.
Still, the oil lobby is not dead. The API, which includes most of the interests of the oil and natural gas continues to remember how the black gold is essential to the planet. "Oil and natural gas take us down the street and around the world. They warm and cool our homes and businesses. They Provide the ingredients for medicines, fertilizers, fabrics, plastics and products --other That Make Life Safer, Easier and better, "said the leaders of the organization. And thereby to try to slow the entry into application of regulatory measures adopted globally. A track and especially on the issue of the development of non-fossil fuels.
Note that the lobbying of oil inspires the entertainment industry. Canal Plus has released the first part of a long series devoted to the Arrow Oil, a petroleum company, little regard for environmental contingencies, which here is the trailer.