In the last US presidential elections, contributors industrial oil and gas thus gave 2,359,000 dollars candidate John McCain and Democratic candidate 0,832,000 to Barack Obama . Amounts that are low by donations garnered by both candidates, 1.1 billion in total. Other economic sectors , especially banks and other financial institutions, have largely contributed most to the financing of the presidential campaign that the sector of oil.
A former influence
The real influence of lobbies energy does not lie in their ability to finance the presidential campaign, but rather to influence decision-making.
For years, the major oil firms from Western states were owned or under the supervision of their own states as oil supply was a strategic interest. Found in Russia, with Gazprom and China, with China Oil, controlled by relatives of the governments of these countries, the same logic. It thus refers to the judgment of Russian gas supplies to Ukraine for contractual reasons but also political. Several pipeline projects are now planned to bypass Ukraine and overcome its geographic centrality for deliveries to Europe. Since its discovery, the oil is at the center of geopolitical interests as indicated Eric Lawrence in his book "The hidden face of oil . " For its part, China is looking to expand its political influence zone to Africa to secure a share of its oil supplies.
When the oil companies were under the direct control of the state-shareholder relations between the government and these companies were particularly easy and straightforward. Now that this link is distended, oil companies have engaged in lobbying campaigns to maintain their influence and remember how their role is invaluable in the economic development of a pay s. In France, it is the French Union of Petroleum Industries , which is responsible for spreading the word.
The Halliburton symbol
Thus, one can guess the two Iraq wars motivated by economic reasons related to the supply of energy. In order to have a stable political regime in that country, the United States and its allies have committed their troops in that country under the guise of fighting against the hegemonic temptation of Iraq in Kuwait in 1991 and the fight against terrorism 2003. From there the only brand to see the oil lobby there is not one that we do not cross in the absence of hard evidence of their unique responsibility. Nevertheless, strong links exist between the white house, moved by his hawks, and oil interests.
Thus, Halliburton a business conglomerate related to the oil industry, changes its lobbying policy as soon as George Bush Junior, and especially Vice President Dick Cheney, former chairman of Halliburton, enter the white house from 2001. believe that money is useless when you have direct levers of power. In many executives of Halliburton make a trip to the Republican administration or conversely, links testimony held between the two organizations. Sarah Palin , the Republican candidate for the vice presidency was also linked to the oil lobby groups . It called especially as the Bush administration, openness to drilling in some areas of the Arctic.
A maneuver on the Kyoto Protocol
Nevertheless, the oil sector is subject to erratic variations that the gradual extinction of oil reserves, or rather the gradual extinction of the oil reserves in terms of cheap exploitation, is not enough to explain. The oil market is subject to the law of supply and demand . Thus it depends on the state of global growth, sluggish today which explains the drop in oil prices in recent months, despite the willingness of producing countries meeting within the OPEC oil cartel what to reduce production. The price level also depends on the level of reserves in each country and primarily the United States. Also between the price of oil on world markets and the price at the pump or tank, other fiscal mechanisms, but also related to refining capacity are taken into account. And not to mention, derivatives of petroleum, plastics, some of which used daily by almost all the inhabitants of the planet.
If the influence suspicions weigh on the oil lobby during the wars in Iraq it is mainly on the development of international regulations on the emission of greenhouse gases it is mostly felt.
On the occasion of the negotiation of the Kyoto 1, the global agreement to reduce greenhouse gases, the world's largest emitter countries, the United States did not ratify the treaty. In fact, it becomes almost "obsolete". The Kyoto Protocol has established the market for pollution rights freely transferable on the market for the most virtuous, redeemable by those companies that pollute more than their emission quota.
2 the Kyoto negotiations to be held in Denmark in December 2009 will be an opportunity for the oil lobby to assess its influence greatly against-square by interest groups in the world of insurance, worried about the consequences of global change on humans and their income statements according to natural disasters suggest raising the temperature level and water on the planet.
Still, the oil lobby is not dead. The API, which includes most of the interests of the oil and natural gas continues to remember how the black gold is essential for the planet. "Oil and natural gas take us down the street and around the world. They warm and cool our homes and businesses. They Provide the ingredients for medicines, fertilizers, fabrics, plastics and products --other That Make Life Safer, Easier and better, "said the leaders of the organization. And thereby to try to slow the entry into application of regulatory measures adopted globally. A track and especially on the issue of the development of non-fossil fuels.
Note that the lobbying of oil inspires the entertainment industry. Canal Plus has released the first part in a series devoted to the Arrow Oil, an oil company, little regard for environmental contingencies, which here is the trailer.