During the last American presidential elections, contributors industrial oil and gas have thus given 2,359,000 dollars candidate John McCain and Democratic candidate 0832000 Barack Obama . Amounts that are low by donations garnered by both candidates, $ 1.1 billion in total. Other economic sectors , especially banks and other financial institutions, have largely contributed most to finance the presidential campaign that the sector oil.
A former influence
The real influence of lobbies energy does not lie in their ability to finance the presidential campaign, but rather to influence decision-making.
For many years, major oil firms from Western states were owned by or under the supervision of their own as the supply of oil was a strategic state interest. Found in Russia, with Gazprom and China, with China Oil, controlled by relatives of the governments of these countries, the same logic. We thus recalls the termination of deliveries of Russian gas to Ukraine for contractual reasons but also political. Several pipeline projects are now planned to bypass Ukraine and to overcome its geographic centrality for deliveries Europe. Since its discovery, oil is at the center of geopolitical interests as indicated by Eric Lawrence, in his book "The hidden face of the oil . " For its part, China is seeking to expand its sphere of political influence in Africa to secure a share of its oil supplies.
When the oil companies were under the direct control of the state-shareholder relations between the government and these companies were particularly easy and straightforward. Now that this link was distended, oil companies have engaged in lobbying campaigns to maintain their influence and remember how precious is their role in the economic development of a pay s. In France, it is the French Union of Petroleum Industries is responsible for spreading the word.
Thus, one can guess the two Iraq wars motivated by economic reasons related to energy supply. In order to have a stable political system in this country, the United States and its allies have committed their troops in this country under the banner of struggle against the hegemonic temptation of Iraq in Kuwait in 1991 and the fight against terrorism 2003 From here to see the only brand of the oil lobby there is one step that we will not cross in the absence of tangible evidence of their sole responsibility. Nevertheless, strong ties between the White House, moved by his hawks, and oil interests.
So Halliburton a conglomerate of companies related to the oil industry, is changing its policy lobbying as soon as George Bush Junior, and especially Vice President Dick Cheney, former president of Halliburton, enter the White House from 2001 To believe that money becomes useless when the levers of power is directly available. Of many leaders of Halliburton executives make a trip to the Republican administration or conversely, evidence of ties held between the two organizations. Sarah Palin , the Republican candidate for the vice-presidency was also linked to groups of oil influences . It recommended in particular , like the Bush administration, openness to drilling in some areas of the Arctic.
A maneuver on the Kyoto Protocol
Nevertheless, the oil sector is subject to erratic changes that the gradual extinction of oil, or rather the gradual extinction of oil in terms of operating budget is not enough to explain. The oil market is subject to the law of supply and demand . Hence it depends on the state of global growth, sluggish today which explains the drop in oil prices in recent months, despite the willingness of the producing countries meeting in the oil cartel OPEC what reduce their production. The price level also depends on the level of reserves of each country and first in the United States. Also between the price of oil on world markets and the price at the pump or tank, other fiscal mechanisms but also related to refining capacity are taken into account. And not to mention, of petroleum products, some plastics which are used daily by almost all the inhabitants of the planet.
If the suspicions of influence hanging over the oil lobby during the wars in Iraq it is mainly on the development of international regulations on the emission of greenhouse gas emissions it is mostly felt.
On the occasion of the Kyoto negotiations 1, the global agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the largest emitter in the world, the United States did not ratify the treaty. In fact, that is practically "obsolete." The Kyoto Protocol has established the market for pollution rights freely transferable on the market for the most virtuous, redeemable undertaken by those who pollute more than their quota of emissions.
The Kyoto negotiations 2 to be held in Denmark in December 2009 will be an opportunity for the oil lobby to gauge his influence greatly against-square by interest groups in the world of insurance, worried about the consequences of global change on humans and their income statements based on natural disasters suggest that raising the level of temperature and water on the planet.
Still, the oil lobby is not dead. API, which includes most of the interests of the oil and natural gas continues to remember how the black gold is essential to the planet. "Oil and natural gas take us down the street and around the world. They warm and cool our homes and businesses. They Provide the ingredients for medicines, fertilizers, fabrics, plastics and products --other That Make Life Safer, Easier and better, "said the leaders of the organization. And thereby attempt to slow the entry into application of regulatory measures adopted globally. A track and particularly on the issue of the development of non-fossil fuels.
Note that the lobbying of oil inspires the entertainment industry. Canal Plus has released the first part of a long series on the Arrow Oil, a petroleum company, little regard for environmental contingencies, which here is the trailer.